The energy use in the baking industry is the main environmental issue as the transition from dough to baked product requires large amounts of energy.
An important key parameter of the baking process is the baking temperature. The heat losses from the oven are a main source of energy inefficiency and depend, among other factors, on the temperature of the external surface of the oven, the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the oven and the air flow near the oven surface.
The baking temperature depends on the type of the product to be produced, and also on the scale of the production. Products are often baked at temperatures between 230°C and 270°C for around 25 minutes where baking is carried out at the point of sale; whereas, at industrial scale baking temperatures are lower and residence times are higher, around 60 minutes.
This best practice deals with the minimisation of the energy use for baking by either operating existing ovens in the most energy-efficient way or by selecting the most efficient oven to cater for the specific baking needs. In this choice operational parameters such as production requirements, energy sources, space constraints, temperature requirements, operation mode and heat transfer mode need to be taken into account.